student studying on laptop November 29

Dos and Don’ts of Effective Feedback

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Do provide feedback that is action-oriented and tells student what they should do with the feedback information. Don't focus exclusively on the cognitive component of learning without considering the impact of feedback on students’ motivation in the online classroom.

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student struggling with test November 14

Teaching Students How to Manage Feedback

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The classroom is a non-stop hub of feedback: test grades, assignment scores, paper comments, peer review, individual conferences, nonverbal cues, and more. Feedback is essential for student learning.

Still, students’ ability to process and use feedback varies widely. We have some students who eagerly accept feedback or carefully apply rough draft comments, while many others dread or dismiss their professors’ notes or reject exam grades as “unfair.” Although feedback is integral to our classrooms and work spaces, we often forget to teach students how to manage it.


August 26

PA014: Efficient and Effective Grading

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On this episode, we discuss the article “Ten Tips for More Efficient and Effective Grading” written by Victoria Smith, PhD, and Stephanie Maher Palenque published in Faculty Focus on February 2, 2015. We discuss practical ways to apply these 10 tips based on our experience, such as using a comment bank, frontloading feedback, being mindful of attitude and approach, and avoiding surprises.


professor and student discussing grade March 21

Using Rubrics as a Defense Against Grade Appeals

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Faculty dread the grade appeal; anxiety prevails until the whole process is complete. Much has been written about how to avoid such instances, but the potentially subjective assessments of written essays or clinical skills can be especially troublesome. One common cause of grade appeals is grading ambiguity in which the student and faculty member disagree on the interpretation of required content. Another cause is inequity, whereby the student feels others may have gotten more credit for very similar work or content (Hummel 2010). In the health-care field especially, these disagreements over clinical-skills assessments can actually result in student dismissal from the program and may lead to lawsuits.


students writing in class March 7

Unexpected Benefits of Grading Effort and Habit

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Effort and habit are instrumental to learning and writing, but they are often dimly lit in our grading systems. That light needs to brighten with the help of new research and popular literature that highlight how essential habit, effort, and perseverance are to learning. I’ve used an effort-aware grading system in my teaching for some time now, a B-grading contract that locks hardworking students into a minimum final grade of B. For grades rising above B, the quality of the writing is the focus (the product), but only for students who fulfill the contract (the process).



female professor looking over glasses December 14, 2015

Contested Grades and the “You Earned It” Retort

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A common rhetorical move we professors make when students object to a grade is to reframe the discussion. We’ll say, “Let’s be clear. I didn’t give you this grade. You earned it.” And if it were appropriate we might underscore our zinger with a smugly snapped Z. But stop and think about it. When we make the “you earned it” move, it’s simply an attempt to shift the debate away from the fairness or interpretation of our standard and onto students to justify their effort by our standard, which really wasn’t their complaint.


happy to be grading papers December 10, 2015

Grading with Grace

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It was just a passing comment in a student’s email reply to me concerning some questions I had raised on her most recent paper. She answered my inquiries and then basically thanked me for “grading with such grace.” This is not a word that I have ever associated with my grading. Tough–yes; thorough–you bet, but grace? Doesn’t that imply my being too easy? Had I given more credit than the student deserved?