There are two main forms of assessment often used within the online classroom. Both formative and summative assessments evaluate student learning and assist instructors in guiding instructional planning and delivery. While the purpose of a summative assessment is to check for mastery following the instruction, formative assessment focuses on informing teachers in ways to improve student learning during lesson delivery (Gualden, 2010). Each type of assessment has a specific place and role within education, both traditional and online.
To reach higher efficiency and success, formative assessments such as Angelo and Cross’ (1993) Classroom Assessment Techniques (CATs) can be used to check for student understanding prior to the summative assessment within the online classroom. The following strategies have been found to be both simple and effective for both the instructor and student in online modalities.
1. Directed Paraphrasing (Angelo & Cross, 1993)
The ultimate goal for teachers is to provide students with lessons that allow for the highest level of mastery and application. Directed paraphrasing allows teachers to obtain a small snippet of what students have learned. This will also hone in upon summarization and paraphrasing skills by translating specialized information into text that is understood by the learner (Angelo & Cross, 1993). This strategy could be used by:
- Identifying the desired objective to be communicated to students (e.g. Students will evaluate the importance of professional dispositions ideal for the field of teaching.)
- Requesting that students write, to a specific audience, a paraphrased summary of what they have learned (e.g. In three to five sentences, directed to your fellow teachers, paraphrase the professional dispositions that are ideal for the field of teaching.) This question may be posed before instruction to assess prior knowledge or during instruction to assess the presented material.
- Following student responses, the instructor will participate and provide both individual and group feedback to address any areas of confusion and/or misunderstanding by presenting additional discussion responses or comments.
2. Student-Generated Test Questions (Angelo & Cross, 1993)
Teachers can assess what information is best remembered and most important to students by engaging them in developing their own test questions. This can provide instructors with understanding what information students deem as useful, what questions would be considered fair, and how well they are able to address their own test questions. To use this strategy in the online classroom:
- Identify the desired objective, assignment, or exam to be communicated to students (e.g. Students will evaluate contemporary issues in educational policy.)
- Determine how many questions students will create. (Typically one to two questions will suffice.)
- Prior to summative assessment (quiz, assignment, essay, or exam), ask students to develop questions to be posted within the discussion forum. (e.g. Following this week’s topic and discussion, create one to two questions regarding contemporary issues in educational policy. Please provide your answer to the question(s). A variation of this could ask that students provide answers to other students’ questions.)
- Following student-posed questions, the instructor provides both individual and group feedback to the class to assist students in better test/summative assessment performance by presenting additional discussion responses or comments.
3. Double-Entry Journal (Angelo & Cross, 1993)
Application is one of the essential elements to student comprehension. In order to promote application of specific objectives, instructors can introduce the double-entry journal within the discussion forum. In this strategy, students read, analyze, and respond to assigned text through the use of a simple graphic organizer (Angelo & Cross, 1993). In using a T-chart, students will reserve one side for elements of the text that stood out to them, while the opposite side will be the explanation, analysis, and possible application of this portion of text. This can be conducted in an online classroom by:
- Selecting a short, vital reading or section of text that is particularly challenging for students.
- Presenting students with a T-chart template to do the following:
- Left column – students list and copy three-to-five meaningful excerpts from the specified text.
- Right column – students explain why each portion of the text was selected in addition to any reactions to their choices.
- Following student completion, use this to promote discussion within the forums by providing feedback and guidance to students regarding their selections. This should be done in addition to a whole class summary.
The above practices include only a small sample of possibilities in regards to using online formative assessment. If used properly, the student feedback collected through the use of formative assessments such as CATs will allow instructors to check for understanding, guide instruction, and provide a proactive approach to student mastery. An important reminder for online educators is to maximize the use of discussion forums. The fast-paced nature of online education does not allow for time wasted; therefore, the addition of CATs within discussion forums can take a proactive approach to student learning and success.
Angelo, T. A., & Cross, K. P. (1993). Classroom assessment techniques. San Francisco; Jossey-Bass.
Gaulden, S. (2010). Classroom assessment techniques. Essex County College. Retrieved from http://sloat.essex.edu/sloat/delete/contentforthewebsite/classroom_assessment_techniques.pdf
Emily Bergquist and Rick Holbeck are currently working as ground and online instructors as well as managers of online full-time faculty at Grand Canyon University.