The Evolution of Instruction 

Man walking from a chalkboard to a digital screen to showcase evolution and technology

Historically, with its fixed curriculum and standardized methods, traditional instruction often fell short of accommodating every student’s unique learning needs. Many found themselves either overwhelmed or under-stimulated. Enter Artificial Intelligence (AI), heralding a monumental change in this landscape. Now, adaptive systems equipped with artificial intelligence evaluate student responses and seamlessly modify subsequent lessons, ensuring each learner is presented with material that resonates with their current skill set and aptitude, pushing them just the right amount. 

One cannot emphasize enough the profound effects of the fusion between artificial intelligence and education. The vast landscape of education, which once might have seemed static and resistant to change, is now fluid, molded continuously by the nuances of AI. Historically, educators have been the sole bearers of the responsibility to recognize and respond to a student’s needs. But even the most astute teacher, with the best intentions, has limitations. AI steps in as a powerful ally, amplifying the educator’s capabilities. It doesn’t replace the teacher but augments their insights, offering a richer tapestry of student understanding from which to draw. 

For instance, consider the traditional classroom scenario. A teacher presents a concept, offers examples, assigns homework, and then reviews the assignments once submitted. The feedback loop, though vital, is time-delayed. Now, imagine an AI-powered classroom. Here, as a student engages with a concept, the system understands the student’s grasp in real time. It can immediately introduce supplemental materials or challenge the student with advanced content, all while keeping the teacher informed of this progression. This fluidity of response, facilitated by AI, fundamentally reshapes the learning environment.  

The global perspective that AI brings cannot be understated. In our increasingly interconnected world, students need to develop a global perspective. AI-driven platforms can bridge classrooms across continents, promoting previously logistically impossible collaborations. A student in New York can collaborate on a science project with a peer in Tokyo, all orchestrated through AI-managed interfaces that track and guide their combined progress. These experiences impart invaluable lessons about cross-cultural understanding, teamwork, and the very nature of our global society. Adaptive AI instruction primarily stands out for its ability to bring personalization to the forefront of the learning experience. It continually assesses each student’s strengths, weaknesses, and progress. As a result, the instruction undergoes constant refinement, ensuring that students are not just passive recipients but active participants in their learning journey. This heightened personalization deepens their engagement and, by extension, elevates learning outcomes. 

Furthermore, adaptive AI instruction promptly identifies and addresses learning gaps. When a student grapples with specific concepts, the system, almost intuitively, offers additional explanations or resources. This instantaneous feedback and support prevents these gaps from snowballing into more considerable challenges. Another remarkable feature is its benefit to advanced learners. They no longer have to wade through content that doesn’t challenge them. Adaptive instruction ensures their academic journey remains stimulating, ensuring their growth isn’t stifled by a lack of challenge. This dynamism accelerates the learning trajectory for all students, irrespective of their starting point. 

Like any transformative approach, adaptive AI-powered instruction has challenges. According to Hu (2023), “Critical thinking no longer depends upon only the ability to organize and manipulate facts and ideas in one’s head, because almost everyone now has a supplemental memory called a smartphone. At present, the smartphone is simply a device for quickly looking up facts, but as AI agents, like Alexa and Google Nest, continue to improve, these personal assistants will become more useful” (p. 212). To tap into the full potential of AI-driven education, schools and institutions must prioritize building solid technological infrastructure. This is essential not just for smooth operations but also for guaranteeing all students have equal access. The act of collecting and analyzing student data also presents concerns related to privacy. Protecting this sensitive information demands stringent data protection measures. Moreover, with the surge of technology, ensuring that every student, regardless of their socioeconomic background, has equal access to AI-powered education becomes an imperative. 

Many educational institutions have already started to harness the potential of adaptive AI instruction, witnessing enhanced learning experiences and improved outcomes. As AI’s capabilities expand, adaptive instruction will keep evolving, promising increasingly personalized, dynamic, and impactful learning experiences. The continuous evolution of AI means that our current understanding is just the tip of the iceberg. As machine learning algorithms become more sophisticated, the adaptive systems they power will become even more responsive and insightful. We might soon see virtual AI teaching assistants that can offer real-time support to students, seamlessly integrating with the classroom environment. 

This does not, however, negate the necessity of a human touch. While AI can analyze data with unmatched precision, the emotional, empathetic aspect of teaching and learning is irreplaceable. According to Crompton & Burke (2023), “Empirical exploration is needed for new tools, such as ChatGPT that was available for public use at the end of 2022” (p. 2). The ideal future of education sees AI and educators coexisting, each amplifying the other’s strengths. But, as we journey into this AI-enriched educational future, it’s crucial to tread with caution and awareness. Ethical considerations, especially concerning data privacy and equity, must be at the forefront of any AI adoption strategy. Schools and policymakers must ensure that as they integrate AI, they do so in a manner that is transparent, equitable, and always in the best interest of the students. Yet, the vision is not merely about AI’s integration but its potential to foster a more inclusive and equitable academic environment. In this era, artificial intelligence is no longer a mere topic of discussion but an influential force catalyzing profound change in education.  

This transformative journey, enriched by AI, illuminates the path for educators, urging them to harness its potential in crafting personalized, efficient, and impactful teaching practices. The education narrative is being rewritten, with AI playing a pivotal role. Combining human intuition with machine intelligence offers a tantalizing glimpse into the future, where learning is more personalized, responsive, and globally connected. But as with all transformative journeys, navigating with enthusiasm and prudence is essential. The goal remains unwavering: creating an educational experience where every student can thrive, and every teacher is empowered. The evolution of adaptive AI-powered instruction marks a significant stride in education. Addressing learning gaps in real-time, accelerating the pace of knowledge acquisition, and crafting a bespoke educational experience equips educators with tools that ensure every student can shine. In comparison, challenges exist, and the promise of a reimagined, inclusive, and efficient educational landscape beckons. As we further entwine technology with pedagogy, adaptive instruction shines as the beacon, illuminating the way forward for a brighter, inclusive academic future. 

The authors have over 90  years of collective experience in school leadership, school district leadership, and higher education.

Dr. Judith Blakely is certified in several states as a school administrator, superintendent, director of special education, gifted instruction, and bilingual education. She has provided service to students and instructors in grades K-12, community colleges, technical institutions, and universities (both private and public institutions). She presently works at a university as a school administrator providing service and support to both the master and doctoral level faculty and students.

Niambi Riggins-Thomas, MEd is a DEI subject matter expert and has served as a teacher, assistant principal, nonprofit director and is featured in university curriculum in the area of K – 12 school funding. She is currently employed as a high school principal.

Dr. Michelle McCraney has served as a state college administrator, faculty member, principal, assistant principal, program and staffing specialist, and teacher. She is currently employed as an online university professor. 


Crompton, H., Burke, D. Artificial intelligence in higher education: the state of the field. Int J Educ Technol High Educ 20, 22 (2023). 

Hu, K. H. (2023). An exploration of the key determinants for the application of AI-enabled higher education based on a hybrid Soft-computing technique and a DEMATEL approach. Expert Systems with Applications, 212, 118762.