January 13, 2014

Nine Strategies to Spark Adult Students’ Intrinsic Motivation

By: in Teaching and Learning

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Are you an instructor who struggles to change the mindset of your students? Do you find that the students’ first questions are about grades rather than the content of the course? Do you want your students to obtain good grades but realize that the grade is a result of a student who is engaged in the topic with passion, interest, and exuberance? It is this passion to learn that can be described as intrinsic motivation.

How do we shift from this extrinsic reward mindset to the commitment to pursue education for the deeper and longer-lasting intrinsic value? Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs tells us that an individual will not be motivated to strive for higher level goals such as education, until lower level needs have been met (Maslow, 1970). It is the approachable instructor who believes in his or her students and is motivated to meet the needs of the individual student while simultaneously ensuring that learning takes place in his or her classroom.

At the very basic level, the instructor should work to confirm that students’ physiological and safety needs are met before we can begin to tap into the other goals that can be fulfilled through education. While it can be difficult to address a student’s challenges as a college instructor, certainly we can educate ourselves about resources available to refer students. Many colleges and universities offer a variety of student support resources.

Beyond acknowledging that basic needs must be met, we must tap into the adult learners’ motivation by addressing their individual potential and helping them to realize the personal satisfaction that can come from achievement. Yes, there are extrinsic factors at play—adult learners pursue education to advance in a career, to earn more money, and to gain some prestige that may come with a higher degree. But, without ignoring these practical issues, if students can also see how their education, even how each individual class they take, can make a difference in how they see themselves and how they can apply their learning, we start to tap into intrinsic motivation.

Instructional Strategies and Intrinsic Motivators
There are many ways to cover course content and effective instructors may find adult learners more enthusiastic when a variety of instructional methodologies are used (McDaniel & Brown, 2001). In encouraging active participation of students, a safe and supportive environment must be provided at all times. The following nine strategies can move the student from a reluctant learner to an engaged learner that is intrinsically motivated:

  1. Encourage students to draw on past experiences and facilitate a dialogue of discussion with regular active participation.
  2. Encourage students to share their own learning expectations and goals related to the course content
  3. Provide announcements and emails with information about the resources available for struggling students (i.e., mentorships, coaching, or counseling services).
  4. Provide real life applications through simulations, case studies, and role playing activities.
  5. Provide visual aids or even field trips that enhance the students learning and application of learning outcomes.
  6. Invite guest speakers that are experts in the field. Experts can pique students’ interests and highlight relevance of the learning concepts being taught.
  7. Talk with students about how the class assignments are relevant to future careers.
  8. Teach students to reflect and take control over their own learning by using weekly reflections (anonymously, if you like) to solicit feedback about their own performance and where they need to improve.
  9. Empower students by teaching them where to find materials and how to use resources in an online college platform that will help them in areas where improvement is needed.

Students, particularly adult students, become motivated when they see value in what they are working toward—when the work they are putting forth is clearly in line with their ultimate values or ideals. Students can find satisfaction in learning when their curiosity about a topic or skill level is improved. “Adults find motivation to learn within the demands and desires of their lives, in providing for themselves and their families, and in satisfying personal dreams and ambitions” (Fisher, 2006, para. 4). It is through the student’s sense of accomplishment and vision for the future that intrinsic motivation is born. An approachable instructor can be the inspiration for this change in the student’s mindset.

References:
Fisher, C., (2006). Asynchronous learning and adult motivation: catching fog in a gauze bag. Retrieved from Learning Solutions Magazine website: http://www.learningsolutionsmag.com/articles/233/asynchronous-learning-and-adult-motivation-catching-fog-in-a-gauze-bag.

Maslow, A.H. (1970). Motivation and Personality, 2nd Ed., New York, Harper & Row.

McDaniel, D., & Brown, D. (2001). United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. Manual for media trainers: A learner-centred approach. Retrieved from Asia-Pacific Institute for Broadcasting Development website: http://www.unesco.org/webworld/training/mymediatrainer/Program/Downloads/AIBDMANUAL.pdf.

© 2014 Faculty Focus, Magna Publications. All Rights Reserved. Use of any content without permission is strictly prohibited.

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Comments

Dave Mazella | January 13, 2014

Interesting stuff, though the McDaniel's distinction between teaching and training (pedagogy and andragogy) would break down if it examined the various forms of active or problem based learning that are being used at lower levels of the curriculum. Ultimately, I think the proposition that adults learn differently from children should be researched further: certainly we treat children and adults differently, but most of the developments in pedagogy seem to come from treating children and young adults with more respect for their intellectual interests and independent inquiry. But many of these insights are still useful for thinking about graduate education as "adult ed" rather than what is presented as "pedagogy."

Alex Storrs | January 13, 2014

Note that "Experts can pique students’ interests", but the way it was written is distressing…

laura S | January 14, 2014

Are our typical college age (young adult) students (18-25) children or adults? I like to think of them and treat them as adults. Some may not yet be up to the challenge the sort of self-motivated learning that college can demand or expect. But if we do not insist on them developing this approach to their learning they will not make the transition from child learner to adult learner.

Kathleen | January 17, 2014

I wonder what this article means by "adult." Is this advice intended for the 17-18 year old incoming undergraduate college students who have to be informed that they are adults and will be expected to work and behave as such? Or, does it refer to the mature adult, perhaps 25 and up, who's worked, raised a family, been a veteran, etc.? The latter don't need to be externally motivated, nor do "graduate" students who've already earned their Bachelor's degrees and know the ropes of learning and self-motivation.


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  1. Reflections on Lesson Planning | A Blog for Pam!
  2. Nine strategies to spark adult students’ intrinsic motivation | PMI SA | South Africa
  3. Strategies to Spark Motivation | pidp3100adulteducation
  4. Instructional strategies | Learning & Realization

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